Friday, July 29, 2011



In this discussion of Passivization, our group takes the data mostly from Sasak and Indonesian. It will deal with passive properties, canonical passive, inverted passive, accidental passive and adversative passive.

a. The subject of the passive clause is a direct object in the corresponding active.
[1] Huda mem-bunuh pencuri
Huda ACT-kill thief
“Huda kills the thief”
[2] Pencuri di-bunuh oleh Huda
Thief PASS-killed by Huda
“The thief was killed by Huda”
[3] Minah empoq Ali
Minah hit Ali
“Minah hit Ali”
[4] Ali te-tempoq siq Minah
Ali PASS-hit by Minah
“Ali was hit by Minah”
b. The subject of active clause is expressed in the agentive adjunct in the passive clause or deleted.
[5] Minah empoq Ali
Minah ACT.hit Ali
“Minah hit Ali”
[6] Ali te-tempoq siq Minah
Ali PASS-hit by Minah
“Ali was hit by Minah”

[7] Ali te-tempoq
Ali PASS-hit
“Ali was hit”
c. The verb in the passive clause can be marked passive or unmarked
[8] Juna sedòt-n siq Ali
Juna burn-3PS by Ali
“Juna was burned by Ali”
[9] Juna te-sedòt siq Ali
Juna PASS-burn by Ali
“Juna was burned by Ali”
Canonical passive marked with di- prefix on the verb and the agent can optionally omitted.
[10] Jojon me-mukul anak itu
[11] Anak itu di-pukul Jojon

[12] Anak itu dipukul-nya
[13] Anak itu dipukul
[14] Anak itu Jojon pukul

[15] Nie tembak keret
S/He ACT.shot bird
“She shoots the bird”
[16] Keret te-tembak siq nie
Bird PASS-shot by her/him
“The bird was shot by her/him”
[17] Keret te-tembak
Bird PASS-shoot
“The bird was shot by her/him”

Examine the following example from Indonesian and Sasak that follow the rule of inverted passive, that tested by adding the intonation break. Jojon pukul and nie tembak is one constituent where NP functioning as S and VP.
[18] Jojon me-mukul anak itu
[19] Anak itu di-pukul Jojon
[20] Jojon pukul // anak itu

[21] Nie tembak // keret
The canonical passive in Sasak can be added with –n post clitic to replace the object. For example:
[22] Nie tembak-n (keret)
S/He shot-something (that definite for the speakers and listeners, in this case suffix –n refers to keret “bird”)
[23] Endang getoq aku
[24] Aku te-getoq siq Endang
[25] Aku Endang getok
[26] Endang getok // aku

[27] Hamidah ter-perosok (precategorial)
Hamidah PASS-drop
“Hamidah was dropped”
[28] Dia ter-lempar dari bis (verb)
He PASS-throw from bus
“He was thrown out from bus”
[29] Dija ter-pukul kakak-nya (verb)
Dija PASS-hit bro/sis-3.POSS
“Dija was hit by his elder brother/sister”
Other example are: Terpesona, terlena, tertelan, terjaga (dari tidurnya), terbangun, termakan, and also with ke- prefix:
[30] Indah ke-jedot pintu (precategorial)
Indah PASS-clash door
“Indah was clashed the door”
There are three types of the markers for the accidental passive in Sasa. They are: prefix ke- te- and circumfix ke- -an. For example: te-pacol, te-ketik, te-belen, ke-lendes, ke-madeq-an .
[31] Agus te-belen
Agus PASS-left behind
“Agus was left behind”
The marker for accidental passive and canonical passive is te-.
[32] Ani ke-lendes
[33] Jundi ke-madeq-an
Jundi PASS-left behind-LOC
“Jundi was left behind”

Our group did find the adversative passive in Sasak, therefore we just give examples from Bahasa Indonesia.
[34] Dina ke-tahu-an nyontek guru-nya
Dina AD-know-APPL cheating teacher-3.POSS
“Dina was known cheating by her teacher
[35] Rumah itu ke-masuk-an maling
House DEF AD-enter-LOC thief
“That house was entered thief”
[36] Ke-maling-an

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