Friday, July 29, 2011



Global warming is the hottest issue in the worlds. COP (Conference of the Parties) were held in Bali last year. This COP called United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). UNFCCC is human’s hope to save the world by making a road map of the agreement related to the climate change. This is the hope of Kyoto Protocol that will expire in 2012.
UNFCCC is the agreement of World’s Conference in 1992 that was ratified by 192 countries in the world. The main purpose of this conference is to mitigating greenhouse gas in protecting the world from this dangerous for world’s climate. Unfortunately the agreement does not force the developed countries that produce high emission to mitigate their emission. In 1997, through the third COP (Kyoto) there was an agreement of the decreasing target of emission for Annex members about 5, 2 % green house gas under the baseline in 1990 during 1998 to 20112. But, again, there was no implementation of this agreement since this time. The rulebook of Kyoto Protocol was broke down by several developed country especially United State of America.
In 2001, through the sixth COP, new rulebook was made in German comprises the way to mitigating global warming and the rule of reducing emission for the country that ratified Kyoto Protocol.
As we know that, based on “common but differentiated responsibilities” principle in UNFCCC rulebook, the Annex I and non Annex I have different responsibility in mitigating global warming. Annex I is country that produce green house gas since Industry revolution, it was in 80-es era. Consists of 24 Highly Developed Countries and 14 Countries with Economies in Transition (Eastern and Central Europe Country). Meanwhile Non Annex I is countries that produce low emission with low economic development.
Global Warming, “Sign of the Last Day?”
In 70-es and 80-es decade the hottest issues in the world was Stars Wars, was only a dream. Before we find the exact place as a replacement of our earth that was too old --- some people said --- maybe human will not find the new place to live a life after the death of the earth. That will happen in a short time if the global warming is not mitigated and emission production still in high level. The scientist prediction, life of the earth will lasted just one century from now. Global warming is the most scaring thing that face by human in the world.
Climate change is happen because the increasing of the global warming that causes by green house effect. Green house effect is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century, and its projected continuation. The sun heat is being trapped by the emission so that it causes increasing of the world’s temperature. The gas that mostly dominant are: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), and Nitrous Oxide (N20), per fluorocarbon (PFC), Hydro fluorocarbon (HFC) and Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
According to the third Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that was published in 2001, there was increasing of the CO2 amount in the air. And the recent report said that from 1990 – 2005, world’s temperature is increasing, it is about 0,15 – 0,30 degree.
There was climate change occurred significantly, the long lasting summer, the increasing of storm, flood, low amount of clean water, the world’s temperature is increasing. And the scariest thing is the eternal ice in Jayawijaya and Antarctic is melted. Then according to Queen’s University, Canada, the Antarctic temperature is 22 degree (its normal temperature is 2-4 degree Celsius). It was sooooooo scary.
Related to this fact, then, UNFCCC has some agenda to be discussed. They are: first, Joint Implementation; second, Carbon Trading, the last is Clean Development Mechanism.
CDM mechanism makes cooperation between Annex I country and Non Annex I country in mitigating global warming. But JI and CT give a chance between Annex I country to do the cooperation to gives fund to the Non Annex I countries.
This mechanism seems perfect in the surface but has lot of weaknesses in implementation. Since 1990 to 2001 Annex countries has already reduce their emission that affect to their GDP (Gross Domestic Product) decreasing, but on the other hand Non Annex Country increase their emission. Does the emission decrease?
The second weakness of this mechanism is about carbon trading. The Annex country that could not decrease their emission can give a fund to the Non Annex country. Therefore the emission is still in high position. Again, does the emission decrease?
The third problem in implementing this mechanism is technology transfer that will not success, is it possible developed country transfer their expensive environmental technology to the developing country without any charge? Again, there are no free things in the world. All things need money.
Climate change policy should gives justice to all countries. But economic reason --- maybe --- is the most obstacles in implementing this mechanism. And on the top of it the high production of emission country, United Nation of America till this time does not reducing its emission.
The exact thing is the poor country and developing country are not ready to mitigating global warming --- climate change. It was an irony, developing countries were forced to keep their forest and they could not take economic benefits from it--- their main income --- and on the other hand the developed countries with high emission just give limited fund to the poor and developing countries.
“Global Warming for the Global Warming” does not remind high emission production country to aware about this “sign of the last day”.
There is little country that acts as the core, the rest become a place to rely on, and lots of them become periphery. Indonesia?

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