Friday, July 29, 2011


a. Noun phrase is a construction into which noun most commonly enter, and of which they are the head word, it is commonly called with “nominal groups”. The structure of a noun phrase consists minimally of the noun (or the subsitution of noun in example: pronoun).
b. Verb phrase is a group of verbs which together have the same syntactic function as a single verb and it is commonly being a predicate of the sentence. In example: He is coming, get up to etc.
a. Clause is a unit of grammatical organization smaller than sentence but larger than phrase, words and morphemes. Its type are: nominal clause, adverbial clause, dependent clause.
Example: he girl left after he came
Clause Clause
b. Sentence is the largest structural unit in terms of which the grammar of language is organized and it ha a type such as: declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamative etc.
A subject is a major constituent of sentence or clause structure, commonly refers to agent or the doer of an action. For example:
The dog bit the cat
We are going to see the eight properties of subject ic Meriaq-Meriqu Dialect [MMD].
• S shows entity with independent existence. Subject is not occur in the VP but it is independent existence. E.g:
[1] Amat momot meco
Amat sit silently INT
“Amat so sit silently”

[2] Kajil jari petugas administrasi
Kajil is officer administration
“Kajil is an administration officer”
• S as a control co-reference
It is consists of pronoun, reflexive and null anaphor.
[3] Irah kaok diriq-n
Irah scratch herself-3SG
“Irah scratch herself”
[4] Side daos diriq-m
You pelang yourself-2SG
“You cut yourself”
[5] Aku empok diriq-kh
1SG hit myself-1SG
“I hit myself”
[6] Ite pade pantok dirikq-th
1PL hit ourself-1PL
“We hit ourself”
There are no difference in reflexive pronoun for the gender. Irah, Side, Aku, Ite functioning as control refpexive pronoun as objects. The markers of those are: “kh” for first person singular
“n” for the third person singular and plural
“m” for the second person singular and plu
“th” for the first person plural
[7] Ali mateq anak-n
Ali kill child-3SG.POSS
“Ali kill his child”
[8] Side pantok anak-m
2SG hit child-2SG.POSS
“You hit your child”
Ali and side control the possesive pronoun mark with “n”, “m”, “kh”, “th”
[9] Nie pade jauk beras daet kelak-ah
3PL bring rice and cooked-it
“They bring the rice and cooked it”
[10] Aku beli manok daet panggang-n
1SG bought chicken and 0 roast-it
“I buy a chicken and 0 roast it”
Nie and aku functioning as subjects control zero anaphors functioning as missing Subjects of the lower clauses.
• S control subject agreement. It is shown at the example below:
[11] (Aku) panggang-kh manok eto
1SG roast-1SG chicken that
“I was roast that chicken”
[12] (Nie) panggang-n manok eto
S/He roast-3SG chicken that
“S/He was roast that chicken”
In [11] and [12] Nie and aku is optional and it control verb agreement in term of the suffix “kh” and “n” reflects to the subject.
• S is a topic in unmarked construction that related to the NP. Knowing that S is a topic we have to use Wh- question.
[13] Saeq matek maling?
Who kill thief
“Who was kill the thief?”
[14] Dengan eto matek maling
Person that kill thief
“That person killed the thief”
• S is the target of an advanced process. Occur when the S is in the lower clause move to O position in the upper clause. E.g:
[15] Paran-kh jaet TV nyak
Think-1SG broke TV this
“I thought this TV is broken”

[16] Paran-kh solah cewek eto
Think-1SG beautiful girl that
“I thought that girl is beautiful”
Derived from [17] and [18] by deleting “anuq” and “ye”:
[17] Mu-k paran anuq jaet TV nyak
PASS-1SG think broke TV this
“I thought this Tv is broken”
[18] Mu-k paran ye solah cewek eto
PASS-1SG that think beautiful girl that
“I thought that that girl is beautiful
• S can be relativized but could not be clefted
[19] Ali saq mateq kanak eto
Ali REL kill child that
“Ali who killed that child”
The base form is:
[20] Ali mateq kanak eto
Ali kill child that
“Ali killed that child”
• S undergoes raising. NP is in the lower clause but apperars to be the S in the higher clause. See example below:
[21] Indah rue-n nyeken gedak
Indah seem-3SG CONT angry
“Indah seemed angry”
It is derived from:
[22] Rue-n Indah nyeken gedak
Seem-3SG Indah CONT angry
“Indah seemed angry”
• S is agent in unmarked construction functioning as the agent or the doer
[23] Amat matek maling
Amat kill thief
“Amat killed thief”
• S is agent in unmarked construction functioning as the agent or the doer
[23] Amat matek maling
Amat kill thief
“Amat killed thief”

It is a major constituent of sentence of clause structure, commonly associated with the receiver or the goal of an action. For example: The dog bit the cat. In MMD there are three properties of the object as you can see at the explanation below:
• O is inside the VP
In MMD some of has no marker for the active form but it is explicitly or zero markers of
[24] Dijah pantok basong
Dijah ACT.hit dog
“Dijah empok basong”
• O is outside the VP
[25] Maling paleq-n Indah
Maling run after-3SG Indah
“Indah run after the thief”
• O is able to become a grammatical S in the passive form.
[26] Pensil-kh te-beli siq Amir
Pencil-1SG.POSS PASS-thief by Amir
“My pencil was bought by Amir”
It is derived from
[27] Amir beli pensil-kh
Amir pencil-1SG.POSS
“Amir bought my pencil’
• DO is inside the VP
DO is inside the VP. The DO is an NP that follows the verb.
[28] Indah kirim surat leq Jamal
Indah sent letter to jamal
“Indah sent a letter to Jamal”
[29] Inaq beng kelambi leq Ipok
Mother gave cloth to Ipok
“Mother gave cloth to Ipok”
• DO is followed by IO
DO is followed by IO. After the DO, there comes another NP functioning as an IO marked with a preposition. This can be seen in this example.
[30] Inaq Seot kirim kaken-an leq ite
Mother Seot sent foods to us
“Seot’s mother sent foods to us”
• DO is preceded by IO
It means that there is a promotion of IO to DO position after the verb.
[31] Kakur pe-ngerem Lulu puisi
“Kakur sent Lulu a poem”
It is derived from
[32] Kakur kirim puisi leq Lulu
“Kakur sent a poem to Lulu”
• DO can be grammatical S in passive form
[33] Linda kirim pakean-n (Hasan) leq Lola
“Linda sent his cloth to Lola.
Derived to
[34] Pakean-n te-kirim siq Linda leq Lola
“His cloth was sent (by Linda) to Lola
• IO is marked with a preposition and follows the DO. Thus is ilustrated in
[35] Inaq beng kelambi leq Ipok
Mother gave cloth to Ipok
“Mother gave cloth to Ipok”
• IO precedes the DO. It is possible to promote the IO to DO position:
[36] Nie beng Hera Qur’an
S/He gave hera Qur’an”
• IO can be grammatical S after being promoted to DO position. Now the initial IO is promoted to S in the passive form
[37] Leman wa-n te-beng kelambi siq Ari
“Leman was given cloth by Ari

No comments:

Post a Comment